HACKER TERRITORY. HACKER TERRITORY. (You were warned.)
- Debugging the compiler
- Dumping out compiler intermediate structures
- Formatting dumps
- Suppressing unwanted information
- Checking for consistency
- Checking for determinism
Causes the output from all of the flags listed below to be dumped to a file. The file name depends upon the output produced; for instance, output from
-ddump-simplwill end up in
Dump error messages as JSON documents. This is intended to be consumed by external tooling. A good way to use it is in conjunction with
Print out each pass name, its runtime and heap allocations as it happens. Note that this may come at a slight performance cost as the compiler will be a bit more eager in forcing pass results to more accurately account for their costs.
Two types of messages are produced: Those beginning with
***do denote the beginning of a compilation phase whereas those starting with
!!!mark the end of a pass and are accompanied by allocation and runtime statistics.
Show statistics on the usage of fast strings by the compiler.
Debugging output is in one of several “styles.” Take the printing of types, for example. In the “user” style (the default), the compiler’s internal ideas about types are presented in Haskell source-level syntax, insofar as possible. In the “debug” style (which is the default for debugging output), the types are printed in with explicit foralls, and variables have their unique-id attached (so you can check for things that look the same but aren’t). This flag makes debugging output appear in the more verbose debug style.
GHC is a large program consisting of a number of stages. You can tell GHC to
dump information from various stages of compilation using the
flags listed below. Note that some of these tend to produce a lot of output.
You can prevent them from clogging up your standard output by passing
These flags dump various information from GHC’s frontend. This includes the parser and interface file reader.
Dump parser output
Dump parser output as a syntax tree
Make the interface loader be real chatty about what it is up to.
These flags dump various information from GHC’s typechecker and renamer.
Make the type checker be real chatty about what it is up to.
Make the renamer be real chatty about what it is up to.
Make the pattern match exhaustiveness checker be real chatty about what it is up to.
Print out summary of what kind of information the renamer had to bring in.
Dump renamer output
Dump renamer output as a syntax tree
Dump typechecker output
Dump typechecker output as a syntax tree
Dump Template Haskell expressions that we splice in, and what Haskell code the expression evaluates to.
Dump expansions of all top-level Template Haskell splices into ⟨file⟩.
Dump a type signature for each value defined at the top level of the module. The list is sorted alphabetically. Using
-dppr-debugdumps a type signature for all the imported and system-defined things as well; useful for debugging the compiler.
Dump derived instances
These flags dump various phases of GHC’s Core-to-Core pipeline. This begins with the desugarer and includes the simplifier, worker-wrapper transformation, the rule engine, the specialiser, the strictness/occurrence analyser, and a common subexpression elimination pass.
Print a one-line summary of the size of the Core program at the end of the optimisation pipeline.
Dump desugarer output
Show the output of each iteration of the simplifier (each run of the simplifier has a maximum number of iterations, normally 4). This outputs even more information than
Dump statistics about how many of each kind of transformation too place. If you add
-dppr-debugyou get more detailed information.
Show the output of the intermediate Core-to-Core pass. (lots of output!) So: when we’re really desperate:
% ghc -noC -O -ddump-simpl -dverbose-core2core -dcore-lint Foo.hs
Dump output of specialisation pass
Dumps all rewrite rules specified in this module; see Controlling what’s going on in rewrite rules.
Dumps the names of all rules that fired in this module
Dumps detailed information about all rules that fired in this module
Dumps the output of the vectoriser.
Dump simplifier output (Core-to-Core passes)
Dumps inlining info from the simplifier. Note that if used in conjunction with
-dverbose-core2corethe compiler will also dump the inlinings that it considers but passes up, along with its rationale.
Dump strictness analyser output
Dump strictness signatures
Dump common subexpression elimination (CSE) pass output
Dump worker/wrapper split output
Dump “occurrence analysis” output
Make the vectoriser be real chatty about what it is up to.
Dump output of Core preparation pass
These flags dump various phases of GHC’s STG pipeline.
Dump output of STG-to-STG passes
Show the output of the intermediate STG-to-STG pass. (lots of output!)
These flags dump various phases of GHC’s C– pipeline.
Dump output from all C– pipeline stages. In case of
.cmmcompilation this also dumps the result of file parsing.
Dump the result of STG-to-C– conversion
Dump the results of the C– control flow optimisation pass.
Dump the results of the C– Common Block Elimination (CBE) pass.
Dump the results of the C– switch lowering pass.
Dump the results of the C– proc-point analysis pass.
Dump the results of the C– stack layout pass.
Dump the results of the C– sinking pass.
Dump the results of the C– CAF analysis pass.
Dump the results of the C– proc-point map pass.
Dump the results of the C– proc-point splitting pass.
Dump the results of the C– info table augmentation pass.
Dump the result of the C– pipeline processing
These flags dump various stages of the native code generator’s pipeline, which starts with C– and produces native assembler.
Dump the results of C– to C– optimising passes performed by the NCG.
Dump the initial assembler output produced from C–.
Dump the result of the register liveness pass.
Dump the result of the register allocation pass.
Dump statistics from the register allocator.
Dump the result of the synthetic instruction expansion pass.
Dump assembly language produced by the
In error messages, expressions are printed to a certain “depth”, with subexpressions beyond the depth replaced by ellipses. This flag sets the depth. Its default value is 5.
Set the width of debugging output. Use this if your code is wrapping too much. For example:
Print single alternative case expressions as though they were strict let expressions. This is helpful when your code does a lot of unboxing.
Suppress any unsolicited debugging output. When GHC has been built with the
DEBUGoption it occasionally emits debug output of interest to developers. The extra output can confuse the testing framework and cause bogus test failures, so this flag is provided to turn it off.
Core dumps contain a large amount of information. Depending on what you are doing, not all of it will be useful. Use these flags to suppress the parts that you are not interested in.
Suppress everything that can be suppressed, except for unique ids as this often makes the printout ambiguous. If you just want to see the overall structure of the code, then start here.
Suppress “ticks” in the pretty-printer output.
Suppress the printing of uniques. This may make the printout ambiguous (e.g. unclear where an occurrence of ‘x’ is bound), but it makes the output of two compiler runs have many fewer gratuitous differences, so you can realistically apply
diffhas shown you where to look, you can try again without
Suppress extended information about identifiers where they are bound. This includes strictness information and inliner templates. Using this flag can cut the size of the core dump in half, due to the lack of inliner templates
Suppress the printing of the stable unfolding of a variable at its binding site.
Suppress the printing of module qualification prefixes. This is the
Suppress the printing of type signatures.
Suppress the printing of type applications.
Suppress the printing of type coercions.
Turn on heavyweight intra-pass sanity-checking within GHC, at Core level. (It checks GHC’s sanity, not yours.)
Ditto for STG level. (note: currently doesn’t work).
Ditto for C– level.
Instructs the LLVM code generator to fill dead STG registers with garbage instead of
undefin calls. This makes it easier to catch subtle code generator and runtime system bugs (e.g. see Trac #11487).
Instructs the simplifier to emit
errorexpressions in the continuation of empty case analyses (which should bottom and consequently not return). This is helpful when debugging demand analysis bugs which can sometimes manifest as segmentation faults.
UniqSupplyallocation from ⟨s⟩.
Set the increment for the generated
Unique‘s to ⟨i⟩.
This is useful in combination with
-dinitial-unique=⟨s⟩to test if the generated files depend on the order of
Some interesting values:
-dinitial-unique=0 -dunique-increment=1- current sequential
UniqSupplythat generates in decreasing order
-dinitial-unique=1 -dunique-increment=PRIME- where PRIME big enough to overflow often - nonsequential order